Substances stimulating the central nervous system
Substances stimulating the central nervous system, have a relatively selective action on certain parts of the central nervous system. Accordingly, they can be divided into the following groups.
1. psychoactive substances that have a predominant influence on the higher parts of the brain (caffeine). With increasing doses, they stimulate the activity of the medulla oblongata, where the vital centers (respiratory and vasomotor), and toxic - excite the spinal cord, causing seizures.
2. Anleptiki (animating), which have a preferential effect on the medulla centers (korazol, kordiamin, camphor, Bemegride, tsititon, lobelia, carbon dioxide). Drugs in this group, stimulating the respiratory and vasomotor centers, causing activation of breathing, increased blood pressure, improve heart function. At higher doses, they can cause excitation motor areas of the cerebral cortex, which leads to the development of seizures.
3. Substances with a primary effect on the spinal cord (strychnine). With increasing doses, they have a stimulating effect on the medulla and some parts of the brain cortex. In toxic doses cause convulsions.
Caffeine (Coffeinum). List B. The alkaloid contained in coffee beans, cocoa, cola nuts, tea leaves. Caffeine increases the excitation processes in the cerebral cortex, increases the body's metabolism, strengthens the heart. At higher doses, and parenteral administration of caffeine stimulates the respiratory and vasomotor centers. Effect on vascular tone in two ways. Exciting vasomotor center, he narrows the blood vessels (the central pressor effect). The direct effect of caffeine on the smooth muscles of blood vessels leading to their expansion (peripheral, myotropic action). Striated muscle dilates blood vessels and the heart, blood vessels constrict the abdomen. Mostly central vasoconstrictor effect of the drug. Caffeine increases diuresis few.
It is used as a psychostimulant for the activation of mental and physical performance and reduced sleepiness as stimulating agent for poisoning by narcotics and hypnotics, the weakening of breath, impaired cardiovascular system function, and so on. D. Assign inside of powders and tablets 0,05-0 1 Producing of caffeine and sodium benzoate (Coffeinum-natrii benzoas) for injection as 10% and 20% solutions in ampoules of 1 and 2 ml syringe and 1 ml tubes; for oral administration: tablets and powders and 0.2 to 0.1.
Strychnine (Strychninum). List A. alkaloid from seeds chilibuha. Used in the form of nitrate (Strychnini nitras). At therapeutic doses, it facilitates the conduction of impulses along the spinal cord, has a stimulating effect on some sections of the cerebral cortex, resulting in a more acute vision, hearing, taste, tactile feel. Excited respiratory and vasomotor centers, affecting the medulla, brain. Research Chemicals improves the heart muscle, increases metabolism.
Used as a tonic for fatigue, a general decrease in metabolism, reducing blood pressure, weakening of cardiac activity, paresis (incomplete paralysis of muscles), atony (lowering the tone) of the stomach, and so on. D. Assign inside strychnine (0,0005-0,001 g) ive injection. And powders produced in ampoules of 1 ml of a 0.1% solution.
Camphor (Camphora). Camphor is obtained by semisynthetic from domestic raw materials - pine oil. When administered subcutaneously camphor stimulation of the nervous system is observed, starting with the centers of the medulla oblongata, causing breathing quickens and blood pressure rises. Acting directly on the heart, camphor enhances its performance. When applied topically, it is irritating and somewhat antiseptic effect. The ointments, oily and alcohol solutions used as camphor rubbing as "distracting" means inflammatory diseases of the muscles p viscera to enhance blood circulation in the area.